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Refereed publications

The MICE publications in refereed journals are presented below.


Demonstration of cooling by the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

Published in: Nature 578, 53–59
[DOI ; arXiv ; RAL Preprint: RAL-P-2019-003]
Press Release and articles

Abstract

The use of accelerated beams of electrons, protons or ions has furthered the development of nearly every scientific discipline. However, high-energy muon beams of equivalent quality have not yet been delivered. Muon beams can be created through the decay of pions produced by the interaction of a proton beam with a target. Such ‘tertiary’ beams have much lower brightness than those created by accelerating electrons, protons or ions. High-brightness muon beams comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art electron, proton and ion accelerators could facilitate the study of lepton–antilepton collisions at extremely high energies and provide well characterized neutrino beams. Such muon beams could be realized using ionization cooling, which has been proposed to increase muon-beam brightness. Here we report the realization of ionization cooling, which was confirmed by the observation of an increased number of low-amplitude muons after passage of the muon beam through an absorber, as well as an increase in the corresponding phase-space density. The simulated performance of the ionization cooling system is consistent with the measured data, validating designs of the ionization cooling channel in which the cooling process is repeated to produce a substantial cooling effect. The results presented here are an important step towards achieving the muon-beam quality required to search for phenomena at energy scales beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider at a facility of equivalent or reduced footprint.

Figures:

Fig. 1a Fig. 1b Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Supplementary fig. 1

Details


First particle-by-particle measurement of emittance in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

Published in: Eur. Phys. J. C (2019) 79:257
[DOI ; arXiv ; RAL Preprint: RAL-P-2018-005]

Abstract

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to cool the muon beam at a future neutrino factory or muon collider. The emittance is measured from an ensemble of muons assembled from those that pass through the experiment. A pure muon ensemble is selected using a particleidentification system that can reject efficiently both pions and electrons. The position and momentum of each muon are measured using a high-precision scintillating-fibre tracker in a 4T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper presents the techniques used to reconstruct the phase-space distributions in the upstream tracking detector and reports the first particle-by-particle measurement of the emittance of theMICE Muon Beam as a function of muon-beam momentum.

Figures:

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Tables:

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

Details


Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling

Published in: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams 20, 063501, 19 June 2017
[DOI ; arXiv ; RAL Preprint: RAL-P-2017-002]

Abstract:

Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and re-acceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.

Figures:

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7a Fig. 7b Fig. 7c Fig. 8a Fig. 8b Fig. 8c Fig. 9 Fig. 10

Tables:

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5

Details


Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

Published in: 2016 JINST 11 P03001
[DOI ; arXiv ; RAL Preprint: RAL-P-2015-009]

Abstract

The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~ 1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is f_{\pi} < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

Figures:

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3a, Fig. 3b, Fig. 4a, Fig. 4b, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7

Tables:

Table 1, Table 2, Table 3

Details


Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

Published in: 2015 JINST 10 P12012
[DOI ; arXiv ; RAL Preprint: RAL-P-2015-008]

Abstract

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100--280 MeV/c.

Figures:

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9, Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12, Fig. 13, Fig. 14, Fig. 15, Fig. 16, Fig. 17, Fig. 18, Fig. 19

Details


Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

Published in European Journal of Physics C, Volume 73, Number 10
[DOI ; arXiv ; INSPIRE HEP]

Abstract:

A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

Figures:

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4a, Fig. 4b, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig 7a--f, Fig. 8a--c, Fig. 9a, Fig. 9b, Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12, Fig. 13, Fig. 14, Fig. 15

Tables:

Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4

Details


The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

Published in Journal of Instrumentation, Volume 7, Number 5
[DOI ; arXiv ; INSPIRE HEP]

Abstract:

The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

Details